The Framework of Existential Risks Related to 
the 5th Industrial Revolution

Existential risks are those risks that threaten the entire future of humanity - not just the present generation, but all future generations. Despite their importance, issues surrounding human extinction risks and related hazards remain poorly understood. There are existential risks that emanate from nature, and there are those that emanate from human activities, and it seems that within a time perspective of a century or two, the latter dominate. 


What makes the situation especially intricate is that many of the risks seem to arise from possible future advances in the areas such as biotechnology, nanotechnology and artificial intelligence where potential gains are likewise enormous.